javamultithreadingcollections

Why are we here, specifically, saying that ArrayList is not thread safe?


Description: If we use same object reference among multiple threads, no object is thread safe. Similarly, if any collection reference is shared among multiple threads then that collection is not thread-safe since other threads can access it. So, Why are we here specifically saying that ArrayList is not thread-safe? What about the other Collections?


Solution

  • ArrayList is unsynchronized in implementation. When an object is unsynchronized it means that is is not locked while being modified structurally. A structural modification is any operation that adds or deletes one or more elements, or explicitly resizes the backing array; merely setting the value of an element is not a structural modification. What you are referring to is an array which the elements are being added to or being deleted from and can be modified this differs from it having its value being set.

    Reference is in regards with the pointer of the start of the array but how many elements are there is in question and having an unsynchronized object being modified in the sense of elements while the elements are being iterated over by another thread the integrity of the elements in the list is hard to guarantee. I hope I was able to convey the message plainly.

    Look for more details here in Oracle: Array List and ConcurrentModificationException

    ArrayList:

    Note that this implementation is not synchronized. If multiple threads access an ArrayList instance concurrently, and at least one of the threads modifies the list structurally, it must be synchronized externally. (A structural modification is any operation that adds or deletes one or more elements, or explicitly resizes the backing array; merely setting the value of an element is not a structural modification.) This is typically accomplished by synchronizing on some object that naturally encapsulates the list. If no such object exists, the list should be "wrapped" using the Collections.synchronizedList method.

    ConcurrentModificationException:

    Note that fail-fast behavior cannot be guaranteed as it is, generally speaking, impossible to make any hard guarantees in the presence of unsynchronized concurrent modification.