phpstringrandom

How to create a random string using PHP?


I know that the rand function in PHP generates random integers, but what is the best way to generate a random string such as:

Original string, 9 chars

$string = 'abcdefghi';

Example random string limiting to 6 chars

$string = 'ibfeca';

UPDATE: I have found tons of these types of functions, basically I'm trying to understand the logic behind each step.

UPDATE: The function should generate any amount of chars as required.

Please comment the parts if you reply.


Solution

  • Well, you didn't clarify all the questions I asked in my comment, but I'll assume that you want a function that can take a string of "possible" characters and a length of string to return. Commented thoroughly as requested, using more variables than I would normally, for clarity:

    function get_random_string($valid_chars, $length)
    {
        // start with an empty random string
        $random_string = "";
    
        // count the number of chars in the valid chars string so we know how many choices we have
        $num_valid_chars = strlen($valid_chars);
    
        // repeat the steps until we've created a string of the right length
        for ($i = 0; $i < $length; $i++)
        {
            // pick a random number from 1 up to the number of valid chars
            $random_pick = mt_rand(1, $num_valid_chars);
    
            // take the random character out of the string of valid chars
            // subtract 1 from $random_pick because strings are indexed starting at 0, and we started picking at 1
            $random_char = $valid_chars[$random_pick-1];
    
            // add the randomly-chosen char onto the end of our string so far
            $random_string .= $random_char;
        }
    
        // return our finished random string
        return $random_string;
    }
    

    To call this function with your example data, you'd call it something like:

    $original_string = 'abcdefghi';
    $random_string = get_random_string($original_string, 6);
    

    Note that this function doesn't check for uniqueness in the valid chars passed to it. For example, if you called it with a valid chars string of 'AAAB', it would be three times more likely to choose an A for each letter as a B. That could be considered a bug or a feature, depending on your needs.